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1820 Treaty with The Ottawa and Chippewa L'Arbre Croche

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Modified on Saturday, 11 June 2011 03:34 PM by Patricia Hamp Categorized as Treaties
Treaty with The Ottawa and Chippewa
July 6, 1820


Articles of a treaty, made and concluded at L'Arbre Croche and Michilimackinac, in the territory of Michigan, between the United States of America, by their Commissioner Lewis Cass, and the Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Indians.

Article 1. The Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Indians cede to the United States the Saint Martin Islands in Lake Huron, containing plaster of Paris, and to be located under the direction of the United States.

Article 2. The Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Indians acknowledge to have this day received a quantity of goods in full satisfaction of the above cession.

Article 3. This treaty shall be obligatory on the contracting parties after the same shall be ratified by the President of the United States, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate thereof.

In testimony whereof, the said Lewis Cass, commissioner as aforesaid, and the chiefs and warriors of the Ottawa and Chippewa nations of Indians, have hereunto set their hands, at Michilimackinac and L'Arbre Croche, in the territory of Michigan, this 6th day of July, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and twenty.

Lewis Cass.

Ottawa chiefs.
  • Skahjenini, his x mark
  • Pahquesegun, or Smoking Weed, his x mark
  • Chemogueman, or Big Knife, his x mark
  • Misesonguay, his x mark
  • Papametaby, his x mark
  • Ceitawa, his x mark
  • Shawanoe, his x mark
  • Oninjuega, or Wing, Ottawa chief, his x mark
  • Cuddimalmese, or Black Hawk, Ottawa chief, his mark
  • Dionesau, his x mark
  • Kojenoikoose, or Long, his x mark

Chippewa chiefs.
  • Kenojekum, or Pike, his x mark
  • Cachetokee, his x mark
  • Gimoewon, or Rain, his x mark
  • Chiboisquisegun, or Big Gun, his x mark
  • Skubinesse, or Red Bird, his x mark
  • Weashe, his x mark
  • Nebaguam, his x mark
  • Ainse, his x mark
  • Shaganash, or Englishman, his x mark

Witnesses present:
  • Jed. Morse, D. D.
  • Gilbert Knapp
  • Richard C. Morse
  • H. G. Gravenant, sworn interpreter
  • George Boyd, Indian agent

SOURCE: Indian Affairs, Laws and Treaties Vol. II Treaties published 1904

D. Martin Islands. – Rep. p. 14.

The Martin Islands are small, in sight of Mackinaw, covered with wood, and have and abundance of plaster (Gypsum) of a superior quality, for the sake of which, principally, this purchase was made. This Plaster, it is understood, is to be free for the use of all, who will take the trouble to transport it. The wood, at a future time, will a valuable article, as there is none of consequence in the island of Mackinaw, where much is used.

An instance of Indian sagacity and shrewdness occurred at the treaty for the purchase of these islands. The Agent, for the purpose of impressing the Indians with the real object of the Government in making this purchase, observed to the Chiefs, in his speech to them on the occasion, that their great Father the President, wanted these islands for his children, not for their soil, or timber, but for the Plaster – and this is intended to give to his children – grave countenance – “if our Father does not want the soil, nor the timber or these islands, but the Plaster only, we will keep the soil and timber, and he shall be welcome to the Plaster.” E. Speech to the Ottowas at L’Arbre Croch, July 6th,1820.

Report To The Secretary Of War Of the United States On Indian Affairs
Performed In The Summer of 1820 Under Commision From the President.
By The Rev. Jedidiah Morse D. D.
Printed 1822.


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