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1838 Compact of Ottawa at Grand Rapids

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Modified on Saturday, 11 June 2011 03:46 PM by Patricia Hamp Categorized as Treaties
5th June 1838

Articles of a compact made and concluded at the village of Grand Rapids, Kent county, Michigan, between Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, Superintendent of Indian Affairs, specially authorized to make this compact, on the part of the United States, and the Ottowa of Grand River valley, by their Chiefs and delegates, assembled in council.

Whereas the fourth article of the treaty of March 28th 1836, provides that the sum of eighteen thousand dollars shall be paid annually, during the term therein stated, to the collective bands of Ottawas and Chippewas residing in the peninsula of Michigan, between Cheboigan and Grand Rivers inclusive, together with the proportional share of provisions, tobacco, and other articles, stipulated to be paid to the said tribes; and whereas the bands in the southern part of the ceded territory have pleaded the inconvenience of their attending, annually, at Michilimackinac, to receive the said annuities, owing especially, to the length of the journey and their want of canoes suitable for navigating the lakes; therefore, it is agreed as follows:

Art. 1. The United States will pay the Grand River Indians in the country in which they actually reside. For this purpose a line is hereby established at a point equidistant between the Manistee and Pierre Marquette Rivers. All the Indians, within the recited boundary, living north of that line, will be paid, as heretofore, at Michilimackinac. All the bands located south of it, extending to Grand River, will be paid within the valley of this stream; provided, that if, from emigration westward, or any other cause, the President of the United States shall deem it expedient to terminate this arrangement, or to direct the annuities to be paid elsewhere, the same may be done.

Art. 2. The Ottowas of Grand River valley, and of the country north of it, extending to, and embracing the river Pierre Marquette, will receive yearly, and coer? Year, during the continuance of the annuities provided by the treaty aforesaid, the sum due to them by their population, agreeably to the last pay roll, that is today, seven thousand one hundred and sixty six dollars, to be divided equally per capita, among them; and the remainder of the sum of eighteen thousand dollars shall be divided, in like manner, among the Indians, both Chippewas and Ottowas living north of the line established in the preceding article, and within the limits described by the original treaty. These bands will also receive respectively, in the same ratio, their due shares of the interest of the two hundred thousand dollars payable on the expiration of the term of their reservations.

Art. 3. The United States will deliver to the said Ottowas living south of the conventional line aforesaid, out of the general annuities provided by the treaty, seventeen hundred pounds of tobacco, twenty six barrels of salt, provisions to the amount of five hundred dollars, and one hundred and fifty dollars in money, in lieu of their proportion of barrels. And the respective articles and sums herein mentioned, shall be deducted annually, from the payments and deliveries at Michilimackinac.

Art. 4. The Ottawas of Grand River valley, for themselves and the bands living on the waters of the Maskigo, White and Pierre Marquette rivers of lake Michigan, hereby disclaim all connection with, or participation whatever, in the recent murder committed on the Maple River; and they embrace the occasion of the present conference, to enter into a solemn covenant of friendship with the United States, renouncing all foreign dictation and counsel, and promising toward all and every citizen of the United States who now has, or may hereafter settle on the territory ceded, a peaceful and friendly course of conduct. Should any injury be done to them, by any white person, the same shall be reported by the chiefs for the action of the proper officers of the State or general government, and no attempt shall be made, otherwise than by such report ?monstrance, or application, to redress themselves.

Art. 5. This compact, so far as relates to its pecuniary and treaty stipulations, shall be submitted for the assent of the other bands of Indians, who draw their annuities under the treaty therein referred to, and such assent shall be deemed essential to its validity, previous to its transmission for the constitutional action of the President and Senate.

In testimony of which, the said Henry R. Schoolcraft, Superintendent of Indian Affairs within the State of Michigan, and the Chiefs and delegates of the said bands, have hereunto set their hands and seals, at the place aforesaid, this fifth day of June, in the year of our Lord eighteen hundred and thirty eight.

Henry R. Schoolcraft Supt. Ind. Affairs

  • Mukutta Oshay
  • Nanamuttubby
  • Keenaitununk
  • Megis Inince
  • Kezhawass
  • Kawbenmoossa
  • Shaikwaynak
  • Mukuddawacquot
  • Steshkibbugosh
  • Shagawawbunoo
  • Nawequay Geeghig
  • Ogimaus
  • Kaytuggeseh
  • Wawbetaing waycee
  • Meetagomaig
  • Kewagosh
  • Kewaytundo
  • Tushetowun
  • Kewutawawbee
  • Mukutta Penaysee
  • Nayogikwagbee
  • Paymossegay

    (Above all noted with x his mark.)


In the presence of: (some of the following signatures are extremely hard to read and anything that I am unsure of is marked by a ?)
  • L. Campau, Interpreter
  • Chas. H. Oakes, Intp.
  • J. C. Abel
  • S. Withig, Berg.??? M.M.
  • N. H. Fisny, Col. M.M.
  • J. W. Windsdo?
  • James Ballard
  • C. I . Walker
  • A. D. Rathbone
  • W. G. Henry
  • H. Hinsdill, Tr???
  • S. Wilson, Clerk
  • L. B???, J.P.
  • Louis Davy, interpreter
  • Fr. K. Whitby
  • Joel Guile Jr.
  • Isaac Tanner, Justice of the Peace
  • Jas. Lys?an
  • Chas. A. Raymond
  • Chas. R. Seni?
  • V. L. Pettibone
  • Wm. P. Patrick, Asst. Conductor of the A. exp. En???? Chip. & Ottawa Ind.

At a council of the Chippewa and Ottawa Indians convened at the agency of Michilimackinac on the eighteenth of June, eighteen hundred and thirty eight, by Henry R. Schoolcraft U.S. Agent for the said Tribes, and Superintendent of the Indian Affairs for the State of Michigan, specially authorized to the act therein the foregoing articles were submitted to the consideration of the said tribes, being parties to the treaty therein referred to, and their assent was given to the same, and to every article and part thereof, agreeably to the provisions of the fifth article.

In testimony where of the said agent, acting as aforesaid, and the Chiefs of the said Tribes have hereunto set their hands and seals, the day and year above written.

Henry R. Schoolcraft
S. I. Affairs, etc.


  • Apawkoogegun
  • Newawanquot
  • Ogimau Wininee
  • Nawamuskcoda
  • Pabamitabee
  • Ains
  • Missatigo
  • Wasso
  • Mukudday Benais

    (Above all noted with x his mark.)


In presence of:
  • Samuel Abbott
  • John A. Drew
  • Jas. L. Schoolcraft, Conductor Exg. Party
  • Chas. H. Oakes
  • Wm. P. Patrick, Asst. of the Exg. Party
  • I. Berry
  • Geo. Johnston
  • John M. Johnston

SOURCE: Mackinac Agency
Letters Received by the Office of Indian Affairs 1824-1881
National Archives Microfilm Publications M234 Roll 402 1828-1838


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